Pneumonia Symptoms

Fungal Pneumonia Symptoms

  • Fever: In persons who are either immunocompromised or neutropenic, persistent fever that is not responding to broad spectrum antibiotics (even prior to pulmonary diagnosis) could be an early sign of infection.
  • Non productive cough
  • Dull discomfort in chest or pleuritic chest pain
  • Dyspnea that leads to respiratory failure
  • Obstructive symptoms resulting from enlarged mediastinal adenopathy in the endemic mycoses
  • Mucormycosis or hemoptysis in invasive aspergillosis
  • Exposure or history of travel to areas with endemic mycoses
  • Symptoms resulting from infection in extrapulmonary systems (may indicate disease)
  • Rheumatologic syndromes (very common among endemic mycoses)

    • Arthritis and arthralgia
    • Erythema nodosum
    • Erythema multiforme
    • Pericarditis

  • Endemic mycoses are related with dissemination to the following:

    • Skin (eg, papules, ulcers, plaques, abscesses, pustules, proliferative lesions)- may show symptoms similar to skin cancer as in B dermatidis)
    • Bone and joints
    • Brain and meninges – meningitis with poor prognosis of only about 10-20%
    • Septicemia or sepsis syndrome

  • Hypersensitivity or allergic reactions

    • Allergic bronchial asthma (Candida species, Aspergillus species)
    • Allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses (Candida species, Aspergillus species)
    • Bronchocentric granulomatosis (eosinophilic infiltration of bronchial mucosa and necrotizing granulomatous replacement in Aspergillus species)
    • Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (farmer’s lung, malt workers lung)

  • In persons with weakened immunity, extra pulmonary sites could be affected
  • Meningocephalitis in patients suffering from AIDS and crytococcosis
  • Skin (often an ideal site for biopsy)
  • CNS (Brain abscess in mucor and aspergillus species)
  • Kidneys
  • Spleen and liver (hepatosplenic candidiasis)
  • Muscle (Candida species)
  • Eye (endophthalamitis) in Candida species
  • Nasal passages and sinuses (mucor and aspergillus species)
  • Bloodstream and bone marrow (sepsis syndrome)

    Physical:

    • Temperature elevation and tachycardia
    • Respiratory distress, signs of pulmonary consolidation, rales and pleural rub
    • Acknowledge extrapulmonary findings indicating meningitis (neck stiffness, headaches, mental status change)
    • Skin lacerations (papules, plaques, pustules, ulcers, abscesses, nodules, hemorrhagic lesions)
    • Nasal passage and sinuses (aspergillus and mucor species)
    • Allergic and rheumatologic findings

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